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Sunday, January 15, 2012

Poison Dart Frog


 Beauty Of Animal | Poison Dart Frog | Poison dart frog (also dart-poison frog, poison frog or formerly poison arrow frog) is the common name of a group of frogs in the family Dendrobatidae which are native to Central and South America. Many species are critically endangered. Most poison dart frogs are brightly colored, displaying aposematic patterns to warn potential predators. 
Their bright coloration is associated with their toxicity and levels of alkaloids. Frogs like the ones of  Dendrobates species have high levels of alkaloids, whereas the Colostethus species are cryptically colored and are nontoxic. Poison dart frogs are an example of an aposematic organism.  Adult frogs lay their eggs in moist places, including on leaves, in plants, among exposed roots, and elsewhere.
Poison dart frogs are endemic to humid, tropical environments of Central and Latin America (South America) These frogs are generally found in tropical rainforests, including in Bolivia, Costa Rica, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Suriname, French Guiana, Peru, Panama, Guyana, Nicaragua, and Hawaii Natural habitats include subtropical or tropical, moist, lowland forests, subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland, subtropical or tropical, moist, montanes and rivers, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, lakes and swamps.
Many species of poison dart frog are dedicated parents. The red-and-blue poison-arrow frogs (Dendrobates pumilio) carry their newly hatched tadpoles into the canopy; the tadpoles stick to the mucus on the backs of their parents.  Other poison frogs lay their eggs on the forest floor, hidden beneath the leaf litter. Poison frogs fertilize their eggs externally, that is to say, the female lays a clutch of eggs and a male fertilizes them afterward, in the same manner as most fish (external fertilization). 
Poison frogs can often be observed clutching each other, similar to the manner most frogs copulate. However, these demonstrations are actually territorial wrestling matches. Both males and females frequently engage in disputes over territory. A male will fight for the most prominent roosts from which to broadcast his mating call; females fight over desirable nests, and even invade the nests of other females to devour competitor's eggs.
The operational sex ratio in the poison dart frog family is mostly female biased. This leads to a few characteristic behaviors and traits found in organism with an uneven sex ratio. In general, females have a choice of mate. In turn, males show brighter coloration, are territorial, and are aggressive toward other males. Females select mates based on coloration (mainly dorsal), calling perch location, and territory. Natural habitats include subtropical or tropical, moist, lowland forests, subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland, subtropical or tropical, moist, montanes and rivers, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, lakes and swamps.
Many species of poison dart frog are dedicated parents. Other poison frogs lay their eggs on the forest floor, hidden beneath the leaf litter. Poison frogs can often be observed clutching each other, similar to the manner most frogs copulate.  The operational sex ratio in the poison dart frog family is mostly female biased. Females select mates based on coloration (mainly dorsal), calling perch location, and territory.

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